Fifteenth Century English Patents of Arms



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Coats of arms were acquired in England by several methods during the fifteenth century, including inheritance, adoption and private concession. Arms were also granted and confirmed by kings, nobles and heralds. Royal grants of arms during this period were made to Eton College (1449), King�s College at Cambridge (1448/9) and Louis de Bruges (1472). Grants of arms by nobles are rare, but not unknown. John and Thomas Macworth, both brothers, had arms granted to them by John Touchet, Lord Audley, in 1404. These arms were based on the arms of Audley and Touchet, and were granted in recognition for services rendered to him and his ancestors. Robert Whitgreave was granted arms by Humphrey, Earl of Stafford in 1442. These arms were also based on Stafford�s arms [1]. Around 118 English patents of arms issued by heralds during the fifteenth century are known. Ninety patents were made to individuals, and about twenty-eight patents were made to twenty-four London guilds. Most of these grants and confirmations are known from subsequent copies. Around twenty-three original fifteenth century English patents of arms issued by heralds are known to exist today. Thirteen of these original surviving patents were made to guilds, and the rest were made to individuals [2]. These surviving patents to individuals were issued to Aleyn 1458, Barrow 1477 and 1495, Elys 1470/1, Peter Hellard 1469, Parys 1467/8, Peckham 1494, Northland 1485, Vaughn 1492 and White 1467 [1]. Other patents made by English heralds to individuals during the fifteenth century that are known from later sources were issued to John Alfrey 1459/60, John Bangor 1456, Jehan Baret (a native of Hertfordshire then in Faucomberg in Picardy) 13 July 1475, Richard Blackwall 1494, William Blithe (father of the Bishops of Salisbury and Coventry) 1486, Christopher Brown 1480, William Bunting (Abbot of Bury and a spiritual peer) 1499, Robert Burton 1478, Caerlyon 1493, Robert Castell 1479, William Catlyn 1469, Chester 1472, Collingbourne 1473, William Crokey-Johnson 1495, William Dunthorn 1467, Elyott 1492, William Gough 1481, William Heriz-Smith 1499, John Kimber 1499, Mylls 1471-2, John Picton 1486, John Randolf (a London mercer) 1453/4, Sheldon 1474/5, Alexander Smith 1475, William Swayne 1461, Tadlow 1478, Tuke 1467 [1] and others. The thirteen original surviving patents of arms issued by English heralds during the fifteenth century to London guilds including the Barbers 1451, Brewers 1468, Carpenters 1466, Drapers 1439 (the oldest surviving English grant of arms), Fletchers 1467, Haberdashers 1446, Ironmongers 1455, Masons 1472, Painters 1486, Parish Clerks 1482, Tallow Chandlers 1456, Wax Chandlers 1485 and Weavers Companies 1490 [2]. Other patents made by English heralds to London guilds during the fifteenth century that are known from later sources were issued to the Blacksmiths 1490, Bowyers 1488, Cooks 1461 and 1467, Cutlers 1476, Fletchers 1486, Girdlers 1454, Glovers 1464 (the original patent was destroyed in a fire in the Leathersellers� Hall in 1819), Grey Tawyers 1476, Leathersellers 1479 (the original patent was destroyed in the same 1819 fire), Merchant Taylors 1481, Parish Clerks 1469/70, Pewterers 1451, Stockfishmongers 1494, Upholders 1465 and Vinters Companies 1447 [2]. There is some evidence of other fifteenth century English grants of arms, but details are not completely known. There is some evidence of other fifteenth century English grants of arms, but details are not completely known. One manuscript (Soc. Ant. MS. 664, Vol. VI, ff. 1-11b) painted circa 1640 may contain information on many arms granted in the fifteenth century. In Anthony Wagner�s words, �I suggested in 1939-and the suggestion seems to have been accepted-that Wriothesley�s roll of some 400 grants made by himself and previous Garters is probably a painted roll now belonging to the Society of Antiquaries�it contains 420 named shields and against most of them are references indicating whether the grant was made under Henry V, Henry VI, Edward IV, Richard III, Henry VII or Henry VIII. I have found no earlier or independent record of most of them, which suggests that Wriothesley compiled this from material in his possession which is now lost� [1]. Mill Stephenson and Ralph Griffin described this manuscript in 1918 in Archaeologia [3]. Since Henry VII reigned into the sixteenth century, only those grants made under Plantagenet Kings can be firmly fixed in the fifteenth century: Henry V (Bacon, Wyfold); Henry VI (Atwode, Babthorpp, Barneby, Baron, Bate, Bilsdon, Bryket, Bryan, Caulx, Caylwey, Celly, Cheoke, Coke, Cosyn, Essex, Eustace, Eyre, Fanner, Feldyng, Fenne, Gunter, Judde, Mathew, Moters, Saull, Swilyard, Tate, Thawtis, Townesende, Wetherby, Whethyll, Wilkes, Yong); Edward IV (Baron, Barrogh, Bryce, Browne, Calowe, Cote, Drayton, Edwardis, Harryot, Hampton, Hart, Hill, James, Kenysworth, Lytton, Marshall, More, Oeke, Perker, Pykering, Pynne, Rawsson, Walwarth, Woode, Wyngar); Richard III (Horton, Jonys, Rede).




John Aleyn, 1454 [4]

To alle true christen people thise present tres seing or hering humble Recomendacion by me Clarensewe king of arms of the South march seruant of armes. It is soo that many psones been moeved of noble and gentile to rage to exrcise virtuous ma�s and condiciones by the which wt goddes grace shall come to the pfeccion of grete honour. Of which psones oone in especial whos name is John Aleyn of the shire of Buckingham tenderly praying and requiring me the said Clarensewe king of Armes to serche for the Armes of the seid John. Where upon I the said Clarensewe king of Armes ate prayer instaunce and request of the said John have made herein due serche and founde the right armes of the seid John as his progenitours out of mind hau borne hem that is to sey quartley in the first quarter siluere & sinoble paled of iiii peeces iii Cressantes counter-chaunged, in the second quarter Asure iii egles of golde membered of silue crowned of gowles. Which armes I the seid Clarensewe King of Armes conferme unto the seid John and wtnesse here that nos psone wtin the Raume of England ought for to bere hem but the seid John and the heirs of his body lawfully begaten. In wtnesse wherof to thise tres I have sette my seall of armes and my signe manuell The viith day of May The xxxii yere of the reigne of kyng Henry the sext.


Kynge of Armys


John Alfrey, 1459/60 [4]

To all those who shall see or hear these present letters John Smert otherwise called Gartyer King of Arms of the English greeting and all humble recommendation. Equity requires and reason ordains that men virtuous and of noble courage be rewarded for their merits by renown and that not only their persons in this mortal life so brief and transitory but after them those who shall issue and be procreated of their bodies may be in all places of great honour perpetually shining before others by certain signs and shows of honour and gentility. That is to say of blazon helmet and crest in order that by their example others may the more endeavour perseveringly to spend their days in feats of arms and other virtuous works to attain renown of ancient gentility in their line and posterity. And therefore I Gartier King of Arms abovesaid who not only by common renown but also by the report and testimony of other noble men worthy of credence am truly advertised and informed that John Alfrey has long persued feats of arms and as well in this as in other his affairs has borne himself valiantly and conducted himself honourably so that he has deserved well and is well worthy that henceforth perpetually and for ever he and his posterity may be in all places honourably admitted renowned counted numbered and received among the number and in the company of other ancient gentle and noble men. And for the remembrance of this his gentility I have devised ordained and assigned to the said John Alfrey for him and his heirs the blazon helmet and crest in the manner which follows. That is to say ung escu de six points de sable et dermyns a trois colz de signe dargent rasez membrez de gueulez et couronnez parmy chun dune couronne des enchaynez de mesmes es diz pointz de sable Et le tymbre sur le haulme deux colz de signe dargent acolans lun lautre ensemble pareillement couronnez et membres a une torse dargent de sable et de gueulez emnantelle de meismce double dargent ci comme la picture en la marge cy devant le demonstre to have and to hold for him and his said heirs and to invest them thereof for evermore. In witness whereof I Gartier King of Arms above named have signed with my hand and sealed with my seal these present Made and given the first day of March in the year of grace one thousand four hundred and fifty nine.


Bernard Angevin, 1444/5 [4]

Bernard Angevin, 1444/5

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Rex Omnibus, ad quos &c., Salutem. Sciatis quod, Cum alias, de nostra speciali, per Literas nostras Patentes, Concesserimus, dilecto et fideli nostro, Bernardo Angevin, uni Consiliariorum nostrorum in Ducatu nostro Aquitaniae, ac Haeredibus suis imperpetuum Castra Terras & Dominia de Roasan, de Puyols, & de Blasimount, in Patria nostra & in Dioecesi in Basadoiz cum Pertinentiis & Dependentiis suis quibuscumque, prout in Literis nostris plenius continetur, Et sit ita quod in dictis Patria nostra & Dioecesi est talis Consuetudo, quod, Decendente aliquo notabili Domino, post ejus Decessum omnes Filii ejus & Filiae, de corpore suo in legitimo Matrimonio descendentes, omnia Bona Paternalia & Maternalia inter eos per aequales Portiones habent & debent Dividere & Partiri, Occasione cujus Consuetudinis plura Notabilia Hospitia & alia eorumdem Patriae nostrae & Diocesis, de quibus Progenitores nostril Servitium & Homagium perantea habere solebant, jam ad Destructionem & Ruinam devenerunt, sic quod nulla fit ibi Habitatio, & consimiliter de praedictis Castris Terris & Dominiis evenire posset in futurum, quod, si eveniret, & per nos de Remedio congruo in hac parte provisum non fuerit, cederet in nostri & Successorum nostrorum grave Dampnum & Praejudicium, ut certitudinaliter informamur, Nos, consideratione Praesmissorum & in Conservationem Castrorum, Terrarum, & Dominiorum praedictorum & praesertim in Recompensationem bonorum & notabilium Servitiorum quae praedictus Bernardus Nobis tam in Guerris nostris quam aliter inpedit, de Gratia nostra specialis denuo Concessimus, pro Nobis, & Successoribus nostris, eidem Bernardo, & Haeredibus suis, ac de ipso causam optinentibus, imperpetuum eadem Castra, Terras & Dominia de Roasan, Puyols, & Blasmont, cum omnibus Pertinentiis & Dependentiis suis praedictis quibuscumque sub tali Nova Provisione, Conditione & Ordinatione, Quod, dicta Consuetudine sive Usu non obstante, praedictus Bernardus dicta Castra, Terras & Dominia, cum Pertinentiis & Dependentiis suis quibuscumque, Haeredibus suis Masculis, &, in defectu Haeredum Masculorum, Haeredibus suis Foemineis de Corpore suo legitime procreates, ut sibi placuerit & melius videbitur ordinare, posit Dividere & Partiri, & quod, post mortem ejudem Bernardi, Primi Filii Haeredum suorum praedictorum, qui gradatim Castra, Terras & Dominia praedicta tenebunt & possidebunt, quilibet in Dominio suo, juxta Ordinationem & Dispositionem ejus Bernardi, eadem Castra, Terras, & Dominia, absque alia Divisione seu Partitione, possidere & manutenere debeant & possint imperpetuum, ut faciunt alii Nobiles Patriae nostrae de Burdeloys, ad finem quod Castra, Terrae, & Dominia illa simper integra remaneant, ac Nos & Successores nostril Servitia & Homagia, inde debita & consueta, habere valeamus, Et ulterius, in Incrementum Honoris & Dignitatis, ut debetur in casu tali, praefatum Bernardum, ac Procreatos suos in legitimo Matrimonio, ac de ipso sic Procreandos & Descendentes, Nobilitamus & Ipsos Nobiles Facimus & Creamus, ac, in signum hujusmodi Nobilitatis, ipsis Arma hic depicta, Dedimus & Concessimus, cum Libertatibus, Privilegiis, Immunitatibus, Juribus, & Insigniis, Hominibus, Nobilibus debitis & consuetis. Quorum quidem Armorum Campus est de Asura, cum Leone Ungulato et Linguato de Goules, ac cum Decem Floribus per Circuitum, vocatis Angevines, de Argento. In cujus &c. Teste Rege apud Palatium suum Westmonasterii, undecimo Die Martii. Per Breve de Privato Sigillo & de Data praedicta, Auctoritate Parliamenti.


Barbers Company, 1451 [5]

Barbers Company, 1451 [2]

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Be it knowen to all men that y Clarensew Kyng of Armes of the South Marche of Englond Consideryng the noble estate of the Cite of London by the name of Erle & Barons as in their ffirst Charter by scripture appereth and as now called mayre and aldermen and by good avyce of all the aldermen and the noble citezenis of London that every alderman shuld have award by hymself to governe and rule to the Worship of the cite and the maires power evy alderman in his Ward with correccion of the mair beyng for the tyme and so notablie ordeyned to be custumed evy Craft clothing be hem self to know o Craft from a nother and also synes of Armes in baner wyse to beer conveniently for the worship of the reame and the noble cite and so now late the Maisters of Barbory and Surgery within the craft of Barbours John Strugge Thomas Wyllote Hugh Herte & Thomas Waleys come & praying me Clarensewe Kyng of Armes to devise hem a conysauns & syne in fourme of armes under my seall of myn Armes that might be conveniently to ther Craft. And where y Clarensewe Kyng of Armes consideryng the gode disposicion of them y have devysed a Conysaunce in fourme of Armes that is to sey A felde sabull a cheveron bytwene iij flemys of silver the which syne of armes y Clarensew gyve the same conysaunce of Armes to the forsaid Crafte and none other Crafte in no wyse shall not bere the same. To the which witenesse of this wrytyng y sette my seal of myn armes & my syne manuall wreten atte London the xxix day of the monthe of September the xxxth yere of the regne of oure soverayne lord Kyng Henry the Sixt.


By Clarensew Kynge of armes.





Thomas Barowe, 1477


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Thomas Barowe, 1495 [6]


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Richard Blackwall, 1494 [4]


To all true Cristen People thiese present Letters heryng or redying I Christofer Norrey King of Armes of the North parties of the Realme of England all due and humble recomendation had unto all Persons of Nobles and other to whome thiese Lres shall appear For as moch as I the said Norrey beyng one of the Kyngs of Armes and admytted so by the Kyngs Highnes and by virtue of hys Letters Pattents to me graunted as more plainly doth appear Gevyng to me full Authority to all thyngs concernyng my sayd office as to other beyng afore mee yn the same. And I according to my said office and othe have been requyred by oon right worshipfull gentilman of the County of Derby called Richard Blackwall of Blackwall to enquire and search for the Armes of his Progenitors and Surname. Att whose request I the sayd Norrey King of Armes have serched in divers ancyent Books and Rolles pertayning to my said office And ther have found that of the same name hath been right Worshipful both of Authority and Armes as it apperyth in ye said Bookes of office Whereuppon I the said Norrey having respect and seyng ye Vertue and Substance of the said Richard Blackwall and his Possession sufficient to meyntayne his heirs ensuying at his desyre have devised to him and to his said heires for evermore thies Armes folowyng and therin to be revested att their pleasure that is to saie He beryth Silver and Sable party per fesse indented, in the Chief three besantes gold, in the second part silver a Grewhond Sabyll in fess colored gold and goulys shekey. The Crest upon the Helme A Grewhonds hede sable coupped coloured shekey gold and goulys, the mantell sable lined Silver. As more pleynly in the marrgent doth appear whych Armes and Creste I the said King of Arms ratifie and confirme unto the said Richard and to his heirs of his Body lawfully begotten without any interruption or empeachment Impediment or Lett of any Pson or Persons and in likewise to use to all his posterity for ever more. In Witness whereof to these present Letters I have sett the Seal of myne Armes and signed the same with my hand the Eighth daie of the Month of August, ye Nynth Yeare of ye Reigne of our Sovereign Lord King Henry the Seventh, 1494.



Bowyers Company, 1488


To all true Cristen People thies presentes lres reding hering or seeing I Thomas Clarenceu principall heraulde and King of Armes of the South pts of this Realme of England otherwise called Thomas Holme Knyght send deu and humble recomendacion and greting as it apperteigneth in oure Lord God Everlasting Equite woll and reason ordenneth that for so moche as I understond for certain that evry Crafte and fraternite wtin the Kynge most Royall Cite of London called his Chambr compace stody devyse & ynmagyne wt theyre besy curys & undeleyd devoyres and dyligencys and suche psonys namely as be lyneally dyscendyd from noble blode compellyd therunto by verrey course of nature the most convenyent and most honourable weyes and meanes to them possible for to Exalte and pferre theyre Crafts and frateryteys to honour and nobley & to as excellent laude and recomendacyn as by theyr myndes canne be thoughte or contryvyd to thentent that evy psonne entrying or comying into theyr Crafte & fraternyteys heryng of their sadde and laudable vertuoux and comendable disposiscions and opynyons shulde the rather enforce and apply themselfe effectually wth all possible delygence towards the maintenance and supportacyon & long contenewaunce of the same to the laud and preysing of God thenor of the kynge our Sovraige lorde of this his Realme and Cite aforsayd and of the sayd Crafte & fraternyte, amongs whom I the sayd King of Armes note and appoynte at this tyme specially the goode sadde and worshipfull and well disposyd persones the Wardens of the full honourable Crafte & frateryte of Bowyers of the said Cite, that is to say Willm Awssten and Richard Clarke Citizens Bowyers and Wardens of the same Crafte for the tyme being wt all the hole body of the same I the sayd King of Armes for the tender zele and inward affeccyon that I bere towards the said Crafte and fraternyte for the preferring and encresse therof to honneur and nobles have geven and graunted unto theym the Armeys hereafter following as in the Margyne dipikt more plenly apperyth that is to saye They beare Sable uppon a cheveron gold thre mollets persyd betwene thre flotys silver, the Crest uppon the Helme Thre bowes bent goulys strykyd gold sette wtyne a wreyth golde and asure, the Mantell sable Forred wth Ermyn, as in the margyne depyct wch armes by thactoryte and powre of myn office annexed and attrybutyd of the sayd Kyng have devised and ordeyned to and for the sayde Craft and frateryte of Bowyers to theym that now be and to them that hereafter schalbe theyre successours, In singne and token of Noblesse for evermore. To have and to hold occupy and rejoice the same armys pesybly and vouablye to the said Wardens and their Successours Bowyers at theyr plesyres wtoute eny impediment Interrupcion lette or enpchement by vertue of my said graunte for evrmore. In wytenesse wherof I the sayd King of Armys to thies psents syngned with my hand do putte my seall of Armys of auctoryte Yeven at London the xxth day of Novembris in the iiijthe yere of the Reygne of our Sovrgne lord king Henry the vijthe.




Brewers Company, 1468 [2]


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Louis de Bruges, Earl of Winchester, 1472


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Christopher Brown, 1480 [4]


To all present and to come who these present letters shall see or hear John More alias Norroy King of Arms of the Northern parts of this Kingdom of England greetings and love with humble recommendation. Equity will and right ordains that virtuous men and of noble courage be by their merits and renown rewarded and not only their persons in this mortal life so brief and transitory but after them those who issue from their body and shall be procreated shall in all places (have) great honour perpetually before others, shining by certain signs and demonstrations of honour and courtesy. To wit by blazon helmet and crest in order that by their example others again will force themselves perseveringly to use their days in deeds of arms and virtuous works to gain the renown of that ancient courtesy in their lineage and posterity and for this end I, Norroy King of Arms as above mentioned, not only by common renown but also by report and witness of other noble men worthy of credence truly advertize and certify that Christopher Brown of the County of Lincoln gentleman (who has for a long time followed feats of arms and also in his other affairs has carried himself valiantly and governed honourably) has truly deserved and is worthy that henceforward perpetually he and his posterity be in all places honourably admitted, renowned, accounted, numbered and received in the number and in the company of other former courteous and noble men and for this (seeing all these things also nobly done) I forthwith fulfil his request in this case, as right and reason will it, for the remembrance of this courtesy by virtue of the authority and power granted and attributed to my office of King of Arms I devise, ordain and assign to the above-minded Christopher Brown for him and his posterity the blazon helmet and crest in the following manner: To wit d�argent en sable parti en bende troix mascles entre charges, en son heaulme la moitie dune Grue desploiant ses elles, la queen nouee, tenant ung Escript en son bec pour �aprendre amourir� as the picture in the margin in front shows it, to have and to hold for himself and his posterity and them to invest for ever. Therefore in witness of this I Norroy King of Arms above mentioned have signed with my hand and sealed with my seal these presents. Made and given at Nottingham the twentieth day of July the year of grace one thousand four hundred and eighty.




Sir Louis Caerlion [4]


A tous prsens et ad venire qui ces prsents Letters Veiront ou Orront iohn writhe autrement dit Gartier Roy darmes de Anglois salut auec Humble recomdacon equit Veult et ordonne q les homes vertueux et de noble Courage soient par lours merits, et bone renome morelle vie tant breifne et transitory, mais apres eulx ceulx qui de leurs corps issiront et seront pcreez sorent en toutz places de grant honneur perpetuelment auec autres reluy sans poor Certaines Ensignes et demonstrances de honneur, et de noblesse cest assavoix de blazon healme et timbre assingne a leur Exemple autres plus sefforcent de pseverament vser leurs jours en faitz de Armes et Ocumres vertuouses pour acquirir la renomee d ancienne noblesse en leur signe et posterite, et pourse ye Gartier Roy d armes des anglois dessusdit qui non pas seulement par Comune renome Mais auissi, par le Rapport, et tesmoignage de pleuseurs dignes de ffoy suis pour vray ad verty et informe que messire lovis Caerlion Chevalier, et docteur en Medecine a longuement pursuy les faitz de vertu, et de noblesse, et tant en ce que autres ses afaires sest porte verteusement, et honourablement governe tellement quil a bien deservy et est digne que doresnavant ppetuellment luy et sa posterite soient en toutes places honorables admis renomnes comptez nombrez et receeuz on nombre, et en la compagnee des autres gentils, et nobles homes, et pour la remembrance dicelle sa noblesse par virtue de lautorite, et power annexe et attribute a mondit office de Roy d armes ay devyse ordone et assigne au susdit messier Louis pour luy et la posterite auec leur difference deue le blazon heaulme et timbre en la mannoir qui sui sauit, Cestassavoir d argent et de vt party en pale ung cheife b. sur le dit cheife trois Estoilles de or et d Argt party a son timbre ung Orynall dedens son case en leurs p�pres coleurs assis sur une toree de or et de purpure mantele de vt double argent, si come la picture en la marge cy deuant le demonstr a voir et tenir pour luy et sad it posterite, et eulx a vser a Tousiour mais en tesmoing de ce le Jartier Roy d armes dessusdit ay signe de ma maine et seelle du seell de mes armes ces prsetes, fait et donne a Londres le jour de St Sampson lan de nre Sr m: cccc quarter vingtz et Treize (sic) et lan du Raigne de Henry le septiesme nre tres redouble et Soveraigne Seigneur le huitiesme.



Carpenters Company, 1466 [7]



Carpenters Company, 1466


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To alle nobles and gentilles thise presentes Lres heryng or seyng William Hawkeslowe otherwise called Clarenseux Kyng of Armes of the Southe Marches of Englond sendeth humble and due recommendacion as it appteyneth ffor soo moche as the felowship of the Crafte of Carpenters of ye Worshipfull and noble Citee of London courageously moeved to excise and vse gentill and comendable guydyng in suche laudable maner and fourme as may best sound vnto gentrice by the which they shall mowe with Goddes grace to atteigne vnto honour and worship haue Desired and prayde me the said Kyng of Armes that Y by the power and auctorite by the Kynges good grace to me in that behalf comytted shuld devise a Conisaunce of Armes for ye said felowship and Crafte which they and theire Successours might boldly and vowably occupie chalenge and enioye for evermore without any puidice or rebuke of any estate or gentil of this Realme. At the instaunce and request of whom I the said Kyng of Armes takyng respecte and consideracion vnto the goodly entent and disposicion of the said ffelowship and Crafte have deuised for them and thire Successours thise armes folowyng that is to sey A felde Siluer a Cheveron sable grayled iij Compas of the same Which armes Y of my said power and auctorite have appoynted yeven and graunted to and for the said ffelowship and Crafte and theire Successours and by thise my presentes lres appoynte, yeve, and gunte vnto them the same. To have, chalenge, occupie, and enioye, without any puidice or empechement for evermore. In Witnesse whereof Y the said Kyng of Armes to thise presentes have sette my seall of Armes wt my signe manuell Yeven at the Citee of London the xxiiij day of the moneth of Nouember The sixt yere of the regne of oure Souerayne Lord Kyng Edward the fourth.


Clarenssevx Kyng of Armes



Drapers Company, 1439 [8]



Drapers Company, 1439


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A Toutz nobles qui cestes pntes verront ou ocrount humble recomendacon premise pour moy Guilliam Brugges autrement dit Jarretier Roy Darmes dez Englois le primier diceluy nonn et humble suiture Darmes a tout la gentiless. Il a pleu a nre souain sr le treshault trepuissant et tresexcellent prince le tresxpien Roy Henry le Sysine diceluy nom Roy Denglet & de ffraunce & sr dyreland de sa benigne grace et habundaunce p sez tres patentes ottroier grauntier et accordier a sez humbles et foiaulx lieges lez gentz du mestier dez Drapiers fraunchisez en sa tresnoble tresfamouse & renomee Citee de loundres fraunchise & libertee dauoir corporacion entre eux du dit mestier et en faire vne meister et quatre gardeins pour regiminer gounier et auoir survien sur la dit mestier et dan en an renouelier chaungier et eslier entre eux meister et gardeins pour tout dys entretenir le conduyt de lour dit corporacion les notables du mestier foundees en tresgraunde honeur et vtue onnt fondez entre eux de solempnisier lour dit corporacion vne foitz chun an Cestassavoire le lundi pschein ensuiant la feste de lassompcion de pluis benoit vierge Dame mere et emperisse de tout celestiel et terresteer nre tresglorious Dame sient Marie du quel nasquist le celestiel & Imperial soleile le pluis glorious Roy et sire de tout Justice nre benoit sr Jhu Crist et en lonneure dicelle pluis benoit vierge et de sa tresglorious feste suisdit lez ditz du mestier rasieses dune comune assentment entre eux de chun au dit iour estre ensemble a compaignies de freres & soers du dit fratnitee et en yceluy iour renouelier chaungier eslier et instituer nouelx meistre et gardeins auxi come le cas requerera pour lonneure et valitee du dit mestier lez notables du dit mestier contendans daugmentier tout dys ce que poet estre a lonneure de dit mestier onnt fait faire requeste a moy le suysdit jarretiere Roy Darmes dez Englois de lez vouillier aviser et deuiser enseingne en forme de blason solom le quel Ils pourroient faire priente en vne seal comon tant soullement au dit mestier seruier pour soubz ycel seal passer affermer verefier et signefier tout ceo que a lour dit mestier entre eux du mestier pient doit ou pourroit appteignier et auxi pour envser du dit blason en tout autre cas come honeur le requerra & pient & doit requerer. Je le suit dit Jarretier Roy Darmes veiant le guant honneure que nre dit souain sr le tresxpien Roy leur a fait p son noble ottroye et graunt suisdit et auxi pour complier a honurable home Johan Gedney le primer Meistre eslue au commencement de suisdit corporacion p bon meure delibacon et consentment entiere de sa dit compaignie encorporees au dit mestier des Drapiers et auxi pour complier tant as quatre Gardeins Johan Wotton Johan Derby Robert Bertyn et Thomas Cook que as autres notables de la dit fratnitee et compaignie. Je les ay deuisez enseigne en forme de blason pour demourer au dit notable mestier pour memoire ppetuell Cestassauoir en lonneur de tresgloriouse vierge et meer Marie le quel est en ovembre du soleyll et replendisant en tout claritee et nestete leur ay devisez en lour blason troys Royes de soleille issantz hors de troys nves de flambe coronnez de troys corons imperiale dore assisez sus vne escue dasure et come pient appoire p la demonstraunce du dit blason assise en peinture et en ces drois colores en le merge de ceste psent lre et pour veritablement blasonier le dit armorie Il covient duc Il porte dasure troys soleilles issantz de troys nves de geullez coronnes de troys Imperiale corons dore le quelle dit blason je le dit Jarretier Roy Darmes certifie nul auter pson queconque de lisle de la graund Bretaigne le portre ycelle dit blason le dit mestier de le processer pour ppetuell memoire et le mestier dez Drapiers delusier a lonneur du dit mestier en toutz cas licites conveniens & honourables et come de droit le dit mestier le requerrera Et pour apisaunce a toutz nobles que je le suisdit Roy Darmes ay devise le suisdit blason au dit notable mestier des Drapiers en loundres Jay sealle ceste psent lre de mon seal le disme iour de Mars en lan du grace mil quatre centz trent et neof et en lan dyoeptisme du Reigne nre souain sr le tresxpien Roy suisdit



Thomas Elyott, 1492 [4]


To all present and to come which theis Lettres shall see or heare John Writhe otherwise called Garter K: of Armes of Englishmen sendeth health with all humble Commendations Equite willeth and reason ordaineth that men of valiant and virtuous be had in a perpetuall memory. And where that Noblenes is once in a blood it may not be lost without to long Continuance in sloath and vices: Also as Gaius Alammunius saith That honest pouerty taketh away noe part of Noblenes, And the Doctor Bartholomew in his treates of tokens of Arms saith, If the Armes be once ours they may in noe wise be taken away from vs. It is soe, that for diuers debaites that often armes fall between Kinesmen of longe time passed, by estimacion between two brethren in Wales called the Eliots, the iunior voided Wales, and went into Deuon: in England, of whome is come so greate number of yssue, that the passe the six ordinary differences in Armes. And also recouered both in virtue and behauiour, worthy to beare their auncient, the auncient tokens and marke of Noblenes and also, not willing to be preiudiciall to this primer house in Walles, but to haue of me thaforesaid King of Armes, and by the authority of mine office annexed, such difference as shall not be to the Cheife house preiudiciall: Whervpon Thomas Elyott and John Elyot his brother haue required mee to shew them what difference Richard Elyott their immediate Father and his Issue with their due difference might beare, without preiudice to any before of his blood, To whome I thaforsaid King of Armes, by the Authoritie of mine Office haue assigned the Armes of their house which Ass: thaforesaid Thomas and John with witness of their Cozen Mr William Elyott one of the Masters of the Kings Chancelleries shew me the Coppie, (That is to say) Quarterly the First quarter Siluer a fece gules betweene 2 gemeles verde azure, The second Siluer a Cheueron gules betweene three Castles Sables And to his timbre upon his healme, an Elephants head in his proper Colours sett on a wreath of azure and gules mantelled gules doubled azure with the difference a bordure vert and siluer gobonnee upon euery vert gobon a Bezant: like as in the margent of the presence doth appear, and shew to haue, with the due differences accustomed to the yssue of thaforesaid Richard Elyott for euermore. In witnes wherof I thaforesaid Garter King of Armes, haue signed with my hand, and sealed with the seale of my Armes, theis presente letters; Made and giuen at London, the day of the translation of St Thomas the Martir of Canterbury the yeare of our Lord 1492. And the yeare of the raigne of R. the 7th our most redoubted soueraigne and leige Lord the seauenth.




Eton College, 1448/9


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Fletchers Company, 1467 [2]


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William Gough, 1481 [4]


To all true Xpian people these prsent tres readinge heareing or seeing I Thomas Holme Knight otherwise called Clarenceaux principall Herauld & King of Arms of the south parts of this Realme of England sendeth due and humble Comendacons and Greetinge as that appertaineth in our lord god euerlasting Equity Willeth and reason ordaineth that men vertuous and of noble Courage be by theire merritts renowned & not only in their persons in this mortal life soe breife and transitory but alsoe in their good name & fame to be of noble memory after their departure out of this life and to be in euery place of honor before other persons euer more reuerenced, and recomended for shewinge of certeyne signs and tokens of honor and Gentellnes to the Inent yt by their Ensamples other persons may the sooner and the more enforce & apply themselues to dispend the liues in honoble workes and vertuous deeds for to purchase and get thereby the renowne of Antient gentlenesse in ye Lynes and posterity for euer more and therefore I the sayd King of Armes yt only by common renowne but by my owne Knowledge alsoe and of ye report of many other Credible and other psons am verily assarteyned that William Gough Gentleman of the County of Chester hath long continued in virtue and in all his Actes and demeaneings hath well sadly and honorbly guided & Gouerned himselfe soe that he hath deserued & is right worthy he and his posterity to be in all places of Worshipp, admitted, renowned, accounted, numbred, accepted and receiued into ye number and Company of other Antient Gentills, and noble men ppetually from henceforth, and for remembrance and consideracon of the same, his gentlenes virtues & abillity by the Authority & power to myne Office annexed and Attributed, I the said King of Armes haue deuised, ordained and assigned vnto and for the same William to him and his posterity the Armes hereafter following, That is to say he beareth Azure betweene three boars heades siluer Armed gould, the Creast vpon a healme, a Boares head gules, about his Necke a Coller, about his necke a Cheyne gould enarmed of the same, and a Boare Speare broken in his mouth the head siluer, and the shaft sable, sett with a wreath Gould & vert the Mantle Azure ffurred with Ermyne as more plainely appeareth in this Margent depicted To haue and to hold the same Armes to the sayd William and theire honor peaceably without Challenge or Interrupcon for euermore In Witnes whereof I the said King of Armes haue signed these prsents with myne own hand and sealed the same with me seale of Authority at London the 12th day of the month of December the 21st yeare of the Raigne of our Soueraigne Lord King Edward the fourth.




Haberdashers Company, 1446


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Ironmongers Company, 1455 [9]



Ironmongers Company, 1455 [2]


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To all maner people these present tres seying or heryng. We, Lancestre Kyng of Armes, sende gretyng in our lorde God euerlastyng; Know ye us the foresaide Lancastre to haue geven and graunted unto the honurable Crafte and felasship of the ffraunchised men of Ironmongers of the citie of London a token of armes, that is to sey: - Siluer, a cheueron of Gowles, sitte betwene three Gaddes of Stele of Asure, on the cheueron three swevells of golde; with two lizards of theire owne kynde, encoupeld with Gowlys, on the helmet. To haue, to holde, and reioyce the forsaide tokyn and armes to the said Craft and felasship thereof, and to their successours enfraunchised men of the same Crafte, in the saide citie, for euermore, to [bear] the said armes in all maner seruices of our souerayne lorde the Kyng, and in baners to the honour and [worship] of God, in holy churches, and ellswhere in eyther places conuenient and needfull, and atte all tymes, in honor and defence of the said citie of London, yf and whan cause requyre hit. Willyng and grauntyng also, that he which shall bere the Baner of the saide Crafte for the tyme, if such nede, be enarmed in the same armes for the same day and tyme, in delakke or for defaute of his ppre armes, in tokenyng of honour and worship of the saide Crafte and felasship, and att all tymes to haue and reioyce the same in the maner aforesaide, for euermore. In witnesse of which thing, we the said Lancastre Kyng of Armes to these present tres haue putt our seall of Armes and signe manuell; Wreten atte London, the firste day of the moneth of Septembre, the xxxiiijth yere of the Regne of our souerayne lord Kynge Henry the sixt.




Leathersellers Company, 1479 [10]


To all true Christian people this Letters readinge hearinge or seinge, I, John Moore alias Norrey, Kinge of Armes, and principall Herault of the Northe partes of this Realme of England, send due and humble commendacion and greetinge (as it apperteineth) in or Lord God everlastinge. Trowth it is that the Mr and Wardens of the Craft of Leathersellers, of this Cittie of London, hath bene wth me, and required me, in so much as I had wedded a wife of the same Companie, to testifie and affirme the Armes of the same Crafte; and at the instance and request of them so doe. Certifyinge that they beare silver three Roe buckes passant gules, lookinge backwardes, armed sables; moore plaine, the hornes and cleyes black. The Creast, the forepart of a Roe buck from the middle upwardes, shewinge the forefeet, standinge in a wreath silver and gules, the Mantell gules and ermyn. To have and to hould for evermore to their honnor. In witness hereof I seale this present letter with the seale of myne Armes, and signed wth my signe manuell. Written in London, the xxth day of May, the xixth yere of Edw. ye iiijth.


Norrey King of Armes




Masons Company, 1472/3 [11]



Masons Company, 1472/3 [2]


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To alle Nobles and gentilles theise present Lres heryng or seyng William Hawkeslowe othir Wise called Clarenseux Kyng of Armes of the Sowthe marches of Englond sendeth humble and due Recomendacion as apperteyneth for soo moche as the Hole Crafte and felawship of masons corogeowsly meoved to excercise and vse gentill and comendable guydyng in such laudable maner and fourme as may best sounde vnto gentrice by the Whiche they shal mowe wt goddis grace to atteigne vnto honoure & worship haue desired and praide me the saide Kyng of Armes that I by the powre & auctorite by the Kyngs goode grace to me in that behalue comytted shuld devyse A Conysaunce of Armes for the saide Crafte and felawship which they and theire successours myght boldly & vowably occupie chalenge and enjoie for evermore wt oute eny preiudice or rebuke of eny estate or gentill of this Reame At the instaunce and request of whome I the saide Kyng of Armes takyng respecte and consideracion vnto the goodly entent & disposicion of the saide Crafte and felawship haue devysed for them & theire syccessours thise Armes folowing that is the sey A feld of Sablys A Chevron silver grailed thre Castellis of the same garnysshed wt dores and wyndows of the feld in the Chevron a Cumpas of Blak whiche Armes I of my saide powre and auctorite haue appoynted yevyn and graunten to and for the saide Crafte and felawship and theire successours and by theise my present lres appoynte yeve and graunte vnto them the same To haue chalenge occupie and enjoie wt oute eny preiudice or empechement for euermore In witnesse wherof I the saide Kyng of Armes to theise presents haue sette my seale of Armes with my signe Manuell Gevyn at london the yere of the Reigne of Kyng Edward the fourthe aftir the Conquest the rijth


Clarenssevx Kyng of armes


W h iiiijl ij




Merchant Taylors Company, 1481 [12]


To all true Christian people these present letters reading, hearing, or seeing, I, Thomas Clarenceux, Principal Herald and King of Arms of the south parts of this Realm of England, send due and humble recommendacion and greeting in Our Lord God everlasting. For so much as I understand for certain that every craft within this the King�s most royal City of London, called his Chamber, study, devise, and imagine in it with all their busy cares and diligences, and specially such persons as be lineally descended from gentle and noble blood (by very course of nature thereunto compelled), the most honourable, excellent, laudable, virtuous, and convenient ways and means to them possible for the exaltation of the same City, and preferment of their fraternities to nobles, and to as excellent renown, land, and recommendation as by them can be goodly devised to the intent that every person entering into the same crafts and fraternities, hearing of their laudable and virtuous opinions, should enforce and apply themselves with all possible diligence by policy, wisdom, and sadness towards the maintenance, supportation, and long continuance of the same to the honour, laud, and praising of God, the King our Sovereign Lord, this his said Realm, and the said Noble City and the same crafts and fraternities. Amongst whom I, the said King of Arms, remember and note specially at this time the laudable and right honourable craft of Taylors and Linge Armourers of the Fraternity of St. John Baptist, within this said noble City, and the good and commendable, virtuous, discreet, and honourable persons Robert Duplege, Master, Ewen Boughton, John Warner, James Shirwode, and John Potman, Wardens of the same noble craft for the time being, and all their whole fraternity of Taylors and Linge Armourers within the said City, which craft hath continued without reproach in honour and noblesse out of time of mind. To whom, therefore, at their special instance by the authority and power imperial to my said office annexed and attributed, I have devised, ordained, and granted, and by these presents devise, ordain, and grant to the said Master, Warden, and Brethren, of the said noble craft and fraternity for them and their successors in sign and token of noblesse, the shield, helm, and timbre hereafter following, that is to say, silver, a pavilion between two mantles imperial, purple, garnished with gold in a chief azure, an holy lamb set within a sun; the crest upon the helm a pavilion, purple, garnished with gold, being within the same our Blessed Lady St. Mary the Virgin in a vesture of gold sitting upon a cushion azure, Christ, her son, standing naked before her, holding between his hands hands a vesture called tunica inconsutilis, his said mother working upon that, one end of the same vesture set within a wreath gold and azure, the mantle purple, furred with ermine as in the margin hereof, more plainly it appeareth depicted in the same. To have and to hold, use, occupy, and rejoice the same arms peaceably and vowably at their pleasures to the said Master, Wardens, and whole Fraternity of Taylors and Linge Armourers within the said noble City of London, and their successors, without impeachment, interruption, impediment or let, of any person or persons, whatsomever he or they be, by virtue of this my grant for evermore. In witness whereof I the said King of Arms to these presents signed with my hand, have put my seal of authority. Given at London the 23rd day of October, in the 21st year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord King Edward the Fourth.




Edmond Mille, 1450 [4]


To all present and to come who these letters shall see or hear, John Smert alias Garter King of Arms in the Realm of England, greeting and all humble commendations. Equity will and reason ordains that men, virtuous and of noble courage, be for their merits by renown rewarded, and not only their persons in this mortal life, so brief and transitory, but after them, those issuing from and being begotten by their bodies be in all places of great honour for ever before others distinguished by certain signs and tokens of honour and gentility, that is to say by blazon, helm and crest, so that by their example more shall be persuaded to use their days in feats of arsm and other virtuous works to acquire the renown of ancient gentility in their line and posterity. Wherefore I, Garter King of Arms aforesaid, who, not only by common renown but also by the report and testimony of others, noble men worthy of faith am well & truly advertised and informed that Edmond Mylle has for long pursued feats of arms & as well in this as in other matters has carried himself valiantly, and honourably governed himself so that he has well deserved & is worthy that henceforth for ever he and his posterity be in all places honourably admitted, received, acknowledged, counted and renowned among the number and of the company of other ancient gentle and noble men. And for the remembrance of this his gentility, I have devised ordained and assigned to the said Edmond Mille, for him and his heirs the blazon, helm and crest in the manner following, that is to say: a shield of six points, sable and argent, three bears rampant of the same, muzzled and enchained or, the chains thrown around them. And the crest on the helm, a demi bear, sable, likewise muzzled and chained or, as aforesaid, seated on a wreath or & gules, mantelled of the same, lined ermine, as the picture, &c., in the margin before this demonstrates, To have, hold and use and posssess for him and his said heirs for ever. In testimony whereof I, Garter King of Arms above-named, have signed with my hand and sealed with my seal these presents. Made and given the twelfth day of August, in the year of grace 1450.




Thomas Northland, 1482 [13]


To alle trewe Cristen people these present tres Redinge hering or seeing Thomas Clarensew Principall Heraulde and kyng of Armes of the Southe parties of this Realme of Ingland send due and humble recomendacon and greting as it apparteyneth in oure Lord god everlasting Equite wol and Reason ordeyneth that vertuouse men and of noble courage be by there merites Renounned and Rewarded And not oonly in theire psones in this mortall liffe so breef and transitory but also in theire good name and fame to be of noble memory after theire departing out of liffe and to be in euery place of honour before other persones euermore Reuerenced and Recomendid for shewing of certaine signes and tokenes of honour and gentilnes to thentent that by theire ensample other psones may the sonner and the more enforce and and applye theyme theymeself to dispend theire lyves in honourable worke and vertuous dede for to purchace and gete therby the Renome of Auncyen gentilnesse in theire ligne and posterite for euermore And therfore I the said King of Armes not oonly by comon Renome but also by myne owne knowlache and the report of manny other credeble and noble persones am vervily ascertayned that Thomas Northland of the countie of Sussex gentilman hath long contynued in vertu And in alle his Actes and demeanyng hath weel sadly and honourably guided and gouerned hymself se that he hath desrued and is right worthy he and his posterite to be in alle place of worship admitted Renomed accompted nombred accepted and Receyued in to the nombre and of the company of other Auncion gentill and noble men ppetually frome hensforth And for remembrannce and consideracion of the same his gentilnes vertu and habilite by the Auctorite and power to myn office Annexed and Attributed I the said King of Armes have devised ordeigned unto and for the same Thoms Northland for hym and his posterite the Armys herafter folowying That is to say he bereth Siluer betwene iij lyonseux vpon a Cheveron Sable iij besaunte The creast vpon the helme half a lyon sable sett withynne a wrethe goold and gowlis The mantel Sable furved with hermyn As more playnly it appeareth in the mergen depicte. To haue and to hold the same Armes to the same Thomas Northland and his Posterite theyme to vse and therinne to be revested at theire pleasure to theire hono peasebly and without challenge or interuption for eumore In wittenesse wherof I the said King of Armes haue signed these psente with myn owne hande and sealed the same with my Seall of Auctorite at London the x Day of Nouembr the xxii yere of the Regne of King Edward the iiijth.


Clarenceux Roy Darmes





Painters Company, 1486 [2]


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Parish Clerks Company, 1482 [4]



Parish Clerks Company, 1482 [14]


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To all true Xrien people thies presentes tres reding hering or seeing I Thomas Clarenceu Knight & King of Arms of the South parties of this Realme of England sende due & humble Recomendacon & greting as it appteigneth in our lord god eulasting: Whereas Walter Bellenger otherwise called Ireland King of Armes of the Land of Ireland had yeuen & graunted by his tres under his signe & seel of his Office unto Symon Mayew & Henry Empson Maisters for the time being of the Confraternitie founded in the Chapell of the Guyldhall within the Citie of London in the honeur of our lord god, our blessed Lady Marie the Virgin his modre & of Seint Nicholas the Armes heraftre following having noon auctoritie by virtue of his said office eny such or other Armes to distribute or yeue to eny psonne or psonnes ffraternitie or place within the precinte of my Jurisdiction, that is to say within the said South pties of Antiquitie lymited & adnulled & dampned the same and wol yat it be frustrate & void & of noon effect. And at thinstaunce Request & desire of the said Maisters I the said King of Armes by the power & auctoritie to myn office in this ptie annexed & attributed, seing & considering their good & laudable disposicions set & grounded upon honeur & nobles, have yeuven & graunted unto them & their Successors the same Armes so to them before yeuven & graunted unto them & their Successors the same Armes so to them before yeuven & graunted as above, That is to say A sheld asur a chefe goules a flour de lice gold in the chefe the hede of a Leoparde of the same tonged goules two halywatr Sprencles of gold & silver ensautur upon all. The Creste upon ye helme sex halywater sprencles newed wt gold & silvr, the mantell asur & goules furred wt Ermyn, as in the picture her in the mergyn more plenly it doth appere. To have & hold the same Armes to John Delhm Robert Vernon now Maisters & to their Successours Maisters of the said Confraternitie & ffelasship, them to enjoy & vse at their pleasurs to their honeur peasibly without chalenge or interupcion for eumore In Witness whereof I Clarenceu the said King of Armes of the said pties of the South have signed thies psent 3 wt myn owne hand and the same have sealed wt my seel of auctoritie At London the xvith day of July the xxii yere of the Reigne of our souvereigne Lord King Edward the fourth: Clarenceu King of Armes





Piers Peckham, 1494 [20]


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John Picton, 1486 [4]


To all true xpen people these prsent tres reeding heering or seeing: I Thomas Clarenceu principall herauld and King of Arms of all the south partes of this Realme of England sende due and humble recommendacons and greetings as it belongeth in our Lord God euerlasting fforasmuch as many persons of their noble & gentle courage, be moued & stirred to exercise good virtues and Comendable maners and noble condicions, by which with gods grace they shall nowe atteigne vnto the perfection of great honor & noblenes of which persons, one there is in especiall called John Picton, borne of the county of Chester gent. whose Ancestors were most in habit in the same county, by whom I the said King of Armes, haue been tenderly prayed & required to make throw serch for the uery Armes of his predecessors, at whose instance I haue soe done, with all goodly diligence, and haue founde that the right Armes of the said John Picton, and his Predecessors bee theise that is to saye: Hee beareth sable a Lyon golde enarmed gules the field gowty of the same Lyon, the creast upon the healme halfe a Lyon gules enarmed golde, sett within a wreath gules & azure, the mantles sable gowty gold furred with ermyn as more plainly appeareth here in the margin depict. which Armes and Creast I the said King testifying the same, ratyfie and confirme vnto the said John and his posterity, he and they to haue occupy and enioye the same Armes and Crest, vowably in likewise as their pdecessors haue done herefore, and therein to bee reuested at their pleasures, to their honor without any empechment, interruption, or lett of any person or persons of the said prouince for euermore. In witness whereof, I the said King of Armes to these psents haue put to the seale of myne Armes of Authority, and signed the same with myne hand the yeere of our Lord God mcccclxxxvi and our souereigne Lord Henry 7 the first yere: Clarencew King of Armes




William Swayne, 1461 [4]


To all gentlemen & women theise prsent letters hearing or seeing humble recommendacion by my Guyan King of Armes, hit is so that manye psons moved of noble Courage purposinge to excercyse & use vertuous manners & condicions by abillitye of wch psons foresayd Guyon Kinge of Armes, a discrete and notable man called William Swayne borne in the Countie of Somerset requyring & praying me to devyse A Sygne And a Cognisuance in fourme of armes for him & the issue of his boddie lawfully begotten to beare and use in war & peace for perpetuall memorie at the request of him concerninge the wooorshifull dispotion of his person & habilitie in all gentilnes. I have devised yeoven & graunted unto the said Wm A Signe & A Cognisance of Armes, thay is to saye, that hee bears Azure, A Chevron of golde between three brode arrowe heads of the same, A Chiefe gules with three maydens heads in there heare. The weh blazon I foresayd Gwyon Kinge of Armes witnesse: not then borne of any other pson whatsoever he bee wthin the Realme of England (otherwyse called the Ile of Great Brittaigne) The whiche signe and armes to have use & hold unto the said Wm Swayne & to the issue & procreation of his boddy lawfullie begotten in all Woorship and genliness everlasting And them to beare and enjoye without clayme or empechment of any pson for evermore. Into witness of wch I have doo written theise prsentes Sealed wth the Seale of myne Armes & signed with my Signe manuell the xxixti daye of the moneth of January arye in the xxxixth yeere of the Reygne of our Soveraigne lorde King Henrie the vith after the Conquest of England: p Gyan King of Armes




John Tadlow, 1478 [4]


To all trew Christian People these Present Letters hearing seeing or reading, I Thomas Clarentieulx King of Armes of all the Province of the South Parties of this Realme send due and humble recommendacons in our Lord God everlasting as it belongeth. For so much as many persons of their noble and gentle courage be moved and stirred to exercise good vertuous and commendable Mannors and noble condicons by the which, with Gods grace yee shall more attaine unto the perfection of great honor and noblenesse, of which persons one that is in especiall called John Tadlow and James his Brother the sonnes of William Tadlow of London gentleman, which hath tenderly prayed and required me the said King of Armes to make good and thorough search for the Armes of his predecessors, at whose instaunce I have soe donne with all goodlie diligence and have found that the right Armes of John Tadlow and James his brother the Sonnes of William Tadlow and his predecessors been Ermin, a frette per palle Azure and gules. The Creast upon the Heaulme a Dragons winge ermin, thereon a fret per palle azure and Gules sett within a wreath silver and Gules, the mantle Gules lined with Ermin, which Armes and creast I the said King testifieing the same ratifie and confirme unto the said John Tadlow and James his Brother and to their posteritie, he and they pleasures to their honour without anie impeachment interruption or lett of anie person or persons of the said Province for evermore. In Witness whereof I the said King of Armes to theis Presentes have sett the Seale of myne Armes of authoritie and signed the same with myne hand in the yere of our Lord God one thousand fower hundred three score and eighteen and of the Raigne of our Souvraigne Lord King Edward the fowrth the eighteenth yeare.




Tallow Chandlers Company, 1456 [15]



Tallow Chandlers Company, 1456


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A tous presens et advenir qui ces presentes lettres verront ou orront Iehan Smert autrement dit Gartier Roy Darmes du Royaume Dangleterre salut. & toute humble recommendacion. En toutes regions royaumes & pays aeste de tous temps et encores est depresent notoirement use & acoustume que principalment et en chief les Citez bonnes & notables communaultez et consequement les compaignies et fraternitez des marchans artificiers & mestiers et chacune diceulx separeement et aparsoy ont enseignes en signe de nobles armes et de blazon separees les unes des autres pour mettre en leur seel dont ilz ont acoustume de user en leurs communs affaires et semblablement en bannieres estandars & pennons quilz portent en mettent avant en leurs notables festes et assemblees tant en sainte eglise pour venerer et decorer les lieux ou est fait & celebre le divin service et en leurs manoirs & lieux communs ou ilz tiennent leurs communicaccons & consaulx comme en ostz et chevauchees darmes quant le cas le requiert. Ores est vray que Iohn Priour Iohn Thirlow William Blakman & Richard Grenecroft Gardiens jurez et plusieurs autres notables hommes du mestier & de la compaignie des Chandeliers de Suyf en la Cite de Londres sont venuz par devers moy le dit Gartier pour et au nom de toute leur confraternite Disans que leur dit mestier est lun des membres dicelle Cite aiant Gardiens jurez & autres officiers auctorisez de faire constituer et mettre entre eulx regles & bonnes ordonnances sur le fait dicellui mestier toute separeement des autres. Pour laquele chose besoing leur est davoir en et pour icellui mestier ainsi que ont les autres compaignies & mestiers de la dite Cite leur armes enseignes et blason distingueement apareulx et separez des autres dont jusques a present nont eu aucune provision. requerans icelle avoir par moy ledit Roy Darmes tres affectueusement et a grant instance. Pourquoy moy considerant leur desir estre honneste & honnourable par vertu de lauctorite et pouvoir annexez et attribuez a mon dit office de Roy Darmes. Ay devise ordonne et assigne a la dite compaignie et confraternite des Chandeliers de Suyf en la dite Cite de Londres pour eulx et leurs successeurs conjointement a tousjours les enseignes armes et blason en la maniere qui sensuit. Cest assavoir ung escu de siz pointz dasur et dargent a trois coulombs de mesmes membrez de gules portans chacun en son bec ung ramceau dolive dor. Et le tymbre sur le heaulme ung Angel assis sur une nuee entretenant la teste de Saint Iehan Baptist en une plateyne dor les elles & garnissure de mesmes emmantele de gules double dermines sicomme la picture en la marge cy devant le demo...estre. En Tesmoing de ce je Gartier Roy Darmes dessusnomme ay signe de ma main et seelle de mon seel ces presentes. Fait et donne le xxiiij jour de Septembre Lan de Grace mil. cccc. cinquante six.


J Garter




Upholders Company, 1465 [16]


To all Gentilmen that this prefent Letters fhall fee or here, humble recommendacious by me William Hawkeflowe, otherwife called Clarenfeux, King of Armes of the South Marches of England and Servant of Armes: it is fo that many Perfons moved of Noble corage purpofing to exercife virtuous codicions and manners, by the habilitis of which condicions and Noble converfacions, with Goddes grace fhall come to perfection of grete honour and Worship: and one in efpecial entending to alle Gentilneffe, is come to me the faid Clarenfeux King of Armes, praying me to avife a conyfaunce of Armes for the Crafft and Felafhip of Upholders in the City of London, and att that Requeft I confidering the gode difpofition of the faid Craft and Felafhip, and alfo the grete honour and Worship that hereafter may fall to them: I have avifed, graunted, and given to them and to their Succeffours for evermore, Armes, that is to fey a Field Sable, three Spervers Ermin, a Lamb Silver, couchand upon a pillow of Gold: the which Armes I Clarenfeux aforefaid grante without empechement of eny Perfon. Witneffe of this Letter to the which I fet my Seal of Armes; and my Sign Manuel wreten att London the xj day of the Moneth of December, the yere of our Lord God, M. CCCC. LXV. and in the fifth yere of the reign of King Edward the Fourth.


Clarenfeux King of Armes.





Hugh Vaughan, 1492 [17]


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Wax Chandlers Company, 1484/5 [2]


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Weavers Company, 1490 [18]



Weavers Company, 1490 [18]


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To all true Cristen people thies presentes lettres Reading, Hearing or Seeing: Thomas Clarensew, herald, and kyng of Armys of the Sowth partyes of this realm of Inglond otherwise callyd Thomas Holme, knight sende dew and humble recomendacyon and gretyng as it apperteyneth in Our Lord God everlastyng. For so moche as I understond ffor certeyn that every crafte and fraternyte within the kynges most Royall Cite of London called his Chamber, Compace, stody, devyse and Inmagyne with theyre besy curys and undelayd devoyres and delegencys and suche personys namely as be lynyally descendyd ffrom noble blode compellyd therunto by verry course of nature the most convenyent and most honowrable weyes and meanys to them possyble ffor to exalte and prefferre theyr Craftes and Fraternyteys to honeur and noble and to as excellent laude and Recomendacyon as by theyr mendys canne be thought or contryvyd to thentent that eny persone entryng or comyng into their Craftes and Fraternytes beryng of theyr sadde and laudable vertuoux and comendable disposiscyons and opynyons shuld Rather enforce and aplye themselfe effectuelly with all possyble delyngce towardes the maytenance and supportacyon and longe contenewaunce of the same to the laude and prersyng of God, thenour of the kyng our sovereynge lord of this his Realme and Cite aforsaid and of the sayd Crafte and fraternyte. Amonge whom, I, the sayd kyng of Armes note and Apoynte at this tyme specyally the good, sadde, worshypfull and well dessposyd persones, the Wardens of the full honorable Crafte and fraternyte of Wevars of the sayd Cite, that is to say Wyllyam Porlyngton and Rychard Smythe Citezens, Wevars and Wardens of the same Crafte for the tyme beyng with all the hole body of the same. I, the sayd kyng of armes, for the tendre zele and inward affeccyon that I bere toward the sayd Crafte and fraternyte, for the presservyng and encresse therof to honour and nobles have yeven and granted unto them the Armeys hereaffter Folowyng as in the mergene depykt more pleynly apperyth: that is to saye they bere asur uppon A chevron sylvere thre Roses goulys betwne thre leopardes heddys holding in their mowthys thre shetylles gold garneshed: the Crest upon the helme a leopardes hed holdyng in ys mouthe a shetyll gold garneshed sett withyne a wreth sylver and goulys: the mantyll azur furred with Ermeyn: which armys by thactoryte and poure of myn offyce annexed and attrybutyed, I, the sayd kyng have devysed and ordeyned to and for the said Crafte and fraternyte of Wevars to them that now be and to them that herafter shalbe and theyre successoures in synge and token of nobles, ffor evermore to have and to hold, occupy and Reioyce withoute any Inpedyment, Interupcion, lette or enpechement by vertue of my sayd graunte for evermore. In wytnesse wherof I, the sayd kyng of Armes to thies presentes synged with my hand have putte my selle of armes of auctoryte yovyn at London the iiij day of August in the vthe yere of our sovereygne lord, Kyng Herry the vijthe.




Robert Whitgreave, 1442 [19]


Humfrey, Count de Staff. & de Perche seigneur de Tunbrigg & de Caux, a tous ceux qui cestes presentes lettres verront ou orront salutes; Saches que nous considerans lez merites que deivent estres attribues a toutes personnes issues de bone lieu & excersantez bones meures & vertues eux conduisantes termis d�onneur & gentilese ycelle, a consideration a nous amove d�augmenter en honneur & noblesse noble home Robert Whitgreve, luy avoir donne & donons per icestes presentes, pour memory d�onneur perpetuell, au portre set armes ensigne de Noblesse un Escue, de azure, a quatre points d�or, quatre Cheverons de Gules; & luy de partire as autres persones nobles de fon linage en descent avecques les differences de Descent au dit blazon & en honneur le reparer a vous avecque celuy ordeine & attribute Helme & Timbre, cest assavoyr le Helme ove mantle de bloy, furre d�Ermines, au une Coronne un demy Antelope d�or: Et pour ceste nostre lettre patente de dit donne verisier, en tesmoigne la nous fait seeler du seele de nos properes Armes, le xiii. Jour d�August l�an du reigne le Roy Henry le sisme puis le conquest vintisme.






[1] Heralds of England: a History of the Office and College of Arms by Anthony Wagner (London: HMSO, 1967)


[2] The Armorial Bearings of the Guilds of London: a Record of the Heraldry of the Surviving Companies with Historical Notes by John Bromley (London: Warne, 1960)


[3] A Roll of Arms Belonging to the Society of Antiquaries by Mill Stephenson in Archaeologia Volume 69 (London: Society of Antiquaries, 1918)


[4] Harleian Society Publications Volumes 76-77: A Collection of Miscellaneous Grants by Willoughby A. Littledale (London: J. Whitehead & Son, 1925)

[5] The Annals of the Barber-Surgeons of London by Sidney Young (London: Blades, 1890)


[6] British Heraldry from its Origins to c. 1800 by Richard Marks (London: British Museum Publications, 1978)


[7] An Historical Account of the Worshipful Company of Carpenters of the City of London by Edward Basil Jupp (London: Pickering & Chatto, 1887)


[8] The History of the Worshipful Company of the Drapers of London Volume 1 by Arthur Henry Johnson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1914)


[9] Some Accounts of the Worshipful Company of Ironmongers by John Nicholl (London, 1866)


[10] The History and Antiquities of the Worshipful Company of Leathersellers by William Henry Black (London: E.J. Francis, 1871)


[11] Record of the Hole Crafte and Fellowship of Masons by Edward Conder Jr (London: Sonnenschein, 1894).


[12] Memorials of the Guild of Merchant Taylors by Charles Mathew Clode (London: Harrison, 1875)


[13] Grant of Arms to Thomas Northland by Frederick Arthur Crisp in Fragmenta Genealogica Volume 10 (London, 1904)


[14] Heralds� Commemorative Exhibition: 1484-1934 (London: Tabard Press, 1970)


[15] Records of the Worshipful Company of Tallow Chandlers by M. F. Monier-Williams (London: Chiswick, 1897)


[16] The Sphere of Gentry Deduced from the Principles of Nature, an Historical and Genealogical Work of Arms and Blazon by Sylvanus Morgan (London: William Leybourn, 1661)


[17] Practical Calligraphy: Techniques and Materials by Mike Darton (New York: Crescent Books, 1990)


[18] The London Weavers� Company by Frances Consitt (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1933)


[19] Remains Concerning Britain by William Camden (London: J.R. Smith, 1870)


[20] British Antiques Dealers' Association Yearbook, 1998/9